T-helper 22 (Th22)

Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodelling

Large image of Fig 1.

1Molecular Immunology, Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung…

Th22 cells in allergic disease


During the last decade, the field of T cell immunology started to confuse the scientific community. More and more subtypes of T helper cells and their counterparts in the innate immune system are desc

Like Th9 cells, Th22 cells participate predominantly in barrier immunity, stimulating the production of anti-microbial molecules by epithelial and mucosal cells.  Cells driving its differentiation (through TGF-α and IL-6) are also mainly innate immune cells. IL22 is its main mediator (also TNFα), which is also produced by Th17 cells. As such, its effects most resemble Th17’s, albeit its more “pathogenic” form.
In health, Th22 protects against skin, airway and gut extracellular bacteria. It is anti-apoptotic, promoting regeneration and repair.  It’s “unbridled exuberance” is implicated in conditions like Psoriasis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Crohn’s Disease and colonic cancer.  Its dormant skin localisation may even retain immune memory within pathological lesions.
At least 2 anti-IL23 biologics are in mid-to-late stage trials, possibly yielding greater efficacy in Psoriasis and Crohn’s Disease.  This may partly be due to its immediate upstream control of both IL22 and IL17.

Mucosal Immunology – IL-22 in mucosal immunity

Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact help@nature.com or the author
Mucosal Immunology is the official publication of the Society of Mucosal Immunology (SMI). It aims to provide a forum for both basic and clinical scientists…

“IL-22 induces the production of various antimicrobial peptides from epithelial cells.2 S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium-binding proteins produced by neutrophils, monocytes, and epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions.21 S100A8 and S100A9 are components of the heterodimeric protein calprotectin. An increased expression of S100A8 and S100A9 is associated with human ulcerative colitis and CD…”

Now you know what Calprotectin is, and why it serves as a surrogate marker of gut inflammation.

Profile of interleukin-22 in gut mucosal health and disease

Profile of interleukin-22 in gut mucosal health and disease Russell B Foxall,1 Susana M Fernandes,1,2 Ana E Sousa,1 1Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Hospital Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: Int…
dovepress.com|By Dove Press

TH17 and TH22 cells: A confusion of antimicrobial response with tissue inflammation versus protection

Large image of Fig 2.
Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune…