SAPHO Syndrome Revisited

SAPHO is an acronym that describes a constellation of findings (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) that defines this rare syndrome.

SAPHO Syndrome: Current Developments and Approaches to Clinical Treatment

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2016 Jun;18(6):35. doi: 10.1007/s11926-016-0583-y. Review|By Firinu D , et al.

Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis: What is it, how should it be treated

Clinical diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is often difficult because symptoms and disease course vary a lot. A multi-disciplinary approach…

Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis: Review

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is primarily a disorder of children and adolescents characterized by episodic osseous pain over several years. The objective of this article is to present an overview of this entity with an emphasis on imaging manifestations.

Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) has been known for over of 40 years. It is an under-recognized entity due to the low number of described cases and poor…

CNO/CRMO may be on the same spectrum as SAPHO, but manifesting at a younger age range. They are currently considered as Autoinflammatory Syndromes, part of the wider Autoinflammatory Bone Disorders, but their genetic defects have not been elucidated.
They share clinical features with Ankylosing Spondylitis, DISH, Psoriatic Arthritis, Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Neutrophilic Dermatoses and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Bone and skin/mucosa appear to be the main target tissues.
The main diagnostic differentials are Infectious Osteomyelitis/Spondylodisciitis and Histiocytosis.
NSAIDs and steroids are the mainstay of treatment. Promising treatments include anti-resorptives (eg Bisphosphonates), anti-TNFs, anti-IL1 and anti-Th17.

Autoinflammatory bone disorders with special focus on chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

<p><i>Pediatric Rheumatology</i>, the official publication of the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society…