Microbiome in Disease

The Microbiome in Autoimmune Disease

Drs. Arthur Kavanaugh and John Cush discuss recent developments in the microbiome as it relates to autoimmune diseases.
(A and B) SFB+ groups were established by one of…


Th17 responses and natural IgM antibodies are related to gut microbiota composition in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients

Intestinal dysbiosis, characterized by a reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, in…


Unique Microbial Signature Identified in Systemic Sclerosis

Patients with systemic sclerosis have an abundance of bacteria that perpetuate inflammation in other autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, and not as…

Sex steroid deficiency–associated bone loss is microbiota dependent and prevented by probiotics

GF mice are protected against the increase in bone turnover induced by sex
Address correspondence to: Mone Zaidi, Endocrinology, PO 1055, Icahn School of Medicine…

In this issue of the JCI, Li et al. show that germ-free mice, when chemically castrated, do not lose bone — a finding that unequivocally establishes a role of gut microbiota in mediating hypogonadal bone loss. Additionally and not unexpectedly, probiotics reversed hypogonadal osteopenia in sex steroid–deficient mice by preventing the disruption of gut barrier function and dampening cytokine-induced inflammation. The authors propose that TNFα is a key mediator; however, it is very likely that other molecules — including IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, RANKL, OPG, and CCL2 — modulate probiotic action. The results of this study highlight the potential for repurposing probiotics for the therapy of osteoporosis. Future placebo-controlled clinical trials will be required to establish safety and efficacy of probiotics in reducing fracture risk in people.

The Microbiome in Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases

The human intestinal microbiota is home to more than 1,000 bacterial species, containing approximately 3 million genes, many of which code for functions that…


The Link Between Our Microbiota and Rheumatologic Disease

Medscape speaks with Dr Jose Scher about the connection between the human microbiota and rheumatologic disease.