Microbiome & Cancer

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is an immunomodulatory anticancer compound. Daillère et al. show that the antitumoral efficacy of CTX relies on two gut commensal species, Enterococcus hirae and Barnesiella intestinihominis in a NOD2-dependent manner. These two bacteria changed the tumor microenvironment, red…

“Oncomicrobiotics”: who would have thought that certain microbiota can enhance the efficacy of some chemotherapeutic agents?

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All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) plays crucial roles in shaping intestinal immunity. Bhattacharya et al. show that, in the context of colon cancer, microbiota-induced intestinal inflammation alters atRA metabolism, leading to a colonic atRA deficit and exacerbation of colon carcinogenesis. atRA supple…

Pro-inflammatory microbiota in Ulcerative Colitis induce CYP26A1 enzymatic degradation of all-trans Retinoic Acid, which would otherwise drive CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells surveillance of colonic malignant transformation.