Cytokine Immunotherapy

IL-1 antagonists may have role in cancer fight

Anakinra, an interleukin antagonist commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is also used for other inflammatory diseases and recently has been studied as a treatment with chemotherapy

The ability of IL-2 to expand T cells with maintenance of functional activity has been translated into the first reproducible effective human cancer immunotherapies. The administration of IL-2 can lead to durable, complete, and apparently curative regressions in patients with metastatic melanoma and…

At high doses, IL2 (Aldesleukin) drives helper and cytotoxic T-cells to combat cancer (but promote autoimmunity).

At low doses, it favours regulatory T-cells, which are obligate IL2-dependent for survival. Tregs downregulate inflammation: good for autoimmunity, bad for cancer and infection.

Anti-IL2 (Basiliximab, Daclizumab) is used in the prevention of acute rejection in transplants, and rarely used off-label in severe autoimmune diseases and graft-vs-host reactions. There is at least a theoretical concern that longterm use may deplete Tregs, rendering perpetuation of rejection and autoimmunity. So, while it may seem counter-intuitive, low dose IL2 may be a more appropriate treatment for rejection and autoimmunity.

IL2 biology is more complex than this differential dose-effect in various T-cell populations. IL2/anti-IL2 immune complexes promote functional Tregs.

It’s complicated.

Tumor Interferon Signaling Regulates a Multigenic Resistance Program to Immune Checkpoint Blockade

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Prolonged interferon signaling in tumor cells increases resistance to immune checkpoint blockade through multiple inhibitory pathways, and inhibiting this response can bypass the need for multi-agent blockade.

Interferon Lambda: A New Sword in Cancer Immunotherapy


Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies in all aspects…|By Hindawi Publishing Corporation

IFN-λ cancer immunotherapy: new kid on the block

Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a new IFN type, related to IFN-α, that is commonly used in the clinic. However, significant side effects accompanying IFN-α treatment limit enthusiasm for IFN-α. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of IFN-α use in oncology and describe the biologic character…